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Samples used for radiocarbon dating must be handled carefully to avoid contamination.Not all material can be dated by this method; only samples containing organic matter can be tested: the date found will be the date of death of the plants or animals from which the sample originally came.

This optional service is detailed on the Methods & Procedures page.

ABOX is an optional aggressive pretreatment process for well-preserved charcoal or graphite samples. Aeon's bone pretreatment service includes collagen extraction, denaturing to gelatin, and purification, as well as special testing and analyses required to reliably date bone.

Objective Proline–glycine–proline (PGP) has been shown to have chemotactic effects on neutrophils via CXCR2 in several lung diseases.

PGP is derived from collagen by the combined action of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 8 and/or MMP9 and prolyl endopeptidase (PE).

) If more than 3% of the carbon in a sample is present in the form of carbonates, ASTM D6866 requires two separate radiocarbon analyses to determine the biobased content.

This surcharge covers the cost of the second analysis.Results In the intestine of patients with IBD, MMP8 and MMP9 levels were elevated, while PE was expressed at similar levels to control tissue.PGP levels were increased in intestinal tissue of patients with IBD.Two common contaminants are humic acid, which can be removed with an alkali wash, and carbonates, which can be removed with acid.These treatments can damage the structural integrity of the sample and remove significant volumes of material, so the exact treatment decided on will depend on the sample size and the amount of carbon needed for the chosen measurement technique.In effect, they provide us with windows to past societies, and contribute to our knowledge of ancient human evolution and cultural development.